Green Illusions newsletter
of the book
The Nuclear Option
3,50 Euro - Dollar,
Misconceptions About the Causes of Cancer
Bernard L. Cohen,
L E Feinendegen, MD
Myron Pollycove, M.D.
William Hazeltine Ph.D
Bruce N. Ames M.D.
Swirsky Gold M.D
Still Waiting for Greenhouse
21stCentury Science and Technology
Environmentalism after colonialism,
the story of WWF national parks in Africa
On June 11, 1997, as the horrors
of Laurent Kabila's mass genocide in Congo/Zaire were first being
reported in the establishment media, the Washington, D.C.-based African
Wildlife Foundation (AWF) issued a press release bemoaning the killing
of four mountain gorillas in Virunga National Park, Zaire as a ``tragedy.''
The animals had been caught in a cross fire during fighting that had
taken place three weeks earlier between Kabila's Alliance of Democratic
Forces for the Liberation of Congo and rebel militias. AWF
representative Annette Lanjouw stated,
``They [the gorillas] were unfortunate victims of just being in the
wrong place at the wrong time. Nobody was targetting the gorillas.''
For the AWF, the World Wildife Fund (WWF), and Fauna and Flora
International (FFI), which together run the International Gorilla
Conservation Program (IGCP), the real victims of the tragedy in the
Great Lakes region of Africa have always been the fauna and flora, not
the human population.
In 1994, while up to 3,000 displaced Rwandan Hutus were dying each day
from starvation and disease in refugee camps in Zaire, the AWF
complained that the camps, located at the foot of Virunga National
Forest, ``placed great pressures on the environment.'' In an attempt to
stay alive, refugees had entered the forest and were foraging for food
and taking wood to use as fuel. To the AWF, such human activity
threatened the destruction of the natural habitat of the gorilla and
other indigenous plant and animal species.
In fact, the so-called conservation programs to save the African
gorillas, which were begun by the AWF, always pitted the gorilla against
human concerns. During the late 1970s, when the government of Rwanda
began to cut down sections of the Virunga forest for agricultural
production, the AWF organized the government to halt its activities, by
offering instead to make the forest into a game park and to promote
tourism to view the gorillas. The AWF argued that the resulting
eco-tourist dollars would be a boon to government revenues. The AWF's
plan was adopted in 1978 when the Mountain Gorilla Project, the first of
its kind, was established. Today, Rwanda's leading income generator is
Colonialist Subversive Corps
For over three and a half decades, AWF has played an insidious
counterinsurgency role for British colonial policy. AWF recruited and
built a cadre force of thousands of black Africans who were carefully
selected and sent to the AWF's College of Wildlife Management, in Moshi,
Tanzania, for ideological training in environmentalism. Deployed back to
their home countries, the cadre were placed in key government
institutions and educational systems to brainwash local indigenous
populations into accepting and overseeing their own economic
backwardness in the name of wildlife management, conservation, and
In addition, key AWF-trained cadre were placed to manage British-created
game and national parks, which the British used for two crucial purposes.
The parks, as quasi-autonomous geographical areas, were each
strategically placed to bridge national borders, so that clandestine
military training and incursions could be carried out to overthrow
governments not in agreement with British policy. Second, the parks
often contained strategic raw materials and precious metals, whose
access could be ensured for British-run international cartels (see ``The
Coming Fall of the House of Windsor,'' EIR, Oct. 28, 1994).
JFK Opposed British Colonialism in Africa
To understand why the AWF was created, it is necessary to look at Africa
during the late 1950s and early 1960s, when new governments and
independence movements threatened to end British colonial rule on the
The chairman of the newly created U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Africa was
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, who shocked everyone by endorsing Algeria's
independence and who personally put himself forward as a friend of
Africa's new leaders. Many of them sought private audiences with the
In 1959 and 1960, Kennedy delivered 13 speeches on Africa:
``Call it nationalism, call it anti-colonialism, call it what you will
... Africa is going through a revolution. The word is out--and spreading
like wildfire in nearly 1,000 languages and dialects--that it is no
longer necessary to remain forever poor or forever in bondage.''
During his campaign for President, Kennedy proposed the African
Education Development Fund to ``plan the long-range educational needs of
Africa.'' The fund would finance the sending of Western agronomists,
engineers, and technicians to assist in African development. African
students, whom Kennedy called ``the future leaders of Africa,'' would be
provided scholarships to come to the United States to study. As
President, Kennedy would create the Peace Corps, which sent young
college graduates to Africa to teach academic subjects in high schools.
Through tax incentives and tax penalties, Kennedy would try to force
American corporations to invest in Africa's industrialization.
When Kennedy upset Nixon in the 1960 Presidential election, the British
immediately deployed to prevent the successful implementation of
While the newly independent African nations were asking the British to
leave, the British deployed their allies from elite Anglo-American
families to work on the continent on their behalf, under the cover of
American friendliness that had been established by Kennedy! These allies,
specialists in counterinsurgency, created the African Wildlife
Leadership Foundation (AWLF, a name they would soon change to AWF).
A Who's Who of Elite Intelligence Hands
On March 20, 1961, less than two months after Kennedy was inaugurated,
Kermit Roosevelt and Russell Train filed incorporation papers for the
AWLF in Washington, D.C.
Roosevelt was a leading counterinsurgency expert who served in the
Office of Strategic Services (OSS), Cairo, during World War II. In 1953,
working for CIA director Allen Dulles, he was responsible for running
the coup that overthrew Iranian Premier Mohammed Mossadegh, whose fate
had been sealed when he nationalized the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil
Roosevelt's family had worked closely with the British for generations.
In 1903, his grandfather, President Teddy Roosevelt, became a founding
member of the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the (British)
Empire. (The oldest organization of its kind, its leading members
founded many of Africa's original national parks. In 1954, it spun off
the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources, whose U.S. representative was Harold J. Coolidge, the key
individual behind the creation of the AWLF. Today it is known as Fauna
and Flora International, AWF's partner in the IGCP.)
Roosevelt's father, Kermit Sr., too, was a British lackey. He joined the
British Army during World War|I, and, during World War II, became a
British citizen in order to be placed in England's Ministry of Shipping
by Sir Winston Churchill, a close family friend. In 1955, Roosevelt's
mother was granted knighthood in the Most Excellent Order of the British
Russell Train, a member of a Boston Brahmin banking family, served as
the AWLF's first president. Train was one of the leading figures who
created the U.S. environmentalist movement. In 1970, he became the
chairman of Jimmy Carter's new federal Environmental Protection Agency,
the regulatory body which oversaw the dismantling of the U.S. industrial
economy. Train later chaired Prince Philip's World Wildlife Fund, U.S.A.
The founding vice president at the AWLF was Arthur ``Nicky'' Arundel.
Also tasked to Allen Dulles's CIA in 1953, while a Marine colonel,
Arundel was chosen as the propaganda expert for an elite
counterinsurgency team that was deployed into Vietnam to destabilize the
country at the time of the 1954 Geneva Accords. Arundel became the
president of the AWF in 1968, and served in that position for ten years.
He currrently is a board member emeritus.
The mentor of both Train and Arundel was Harvard zoologist Harold J.
Coolidge, who died in 1986. Coolidge was the chairman emeritus of the
AWF and the real power behind its activities. Educated as a zoologist at
Harvard University, he served in the OSS in Washington, D.C. during
World War II.
The British gave Coolidge the task of running the U.S. branch of the
British-created international conservation and environmental movements.
From 1930 to 1950, he was a member of the Second Commission on
International Wild Life Protection, and from 1951 to 1971 served as its
chairman. After World War II, he helped create the International Union
for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and served
as the chairman of the U.S. branch. He became the president of the
international IUCN in 1966, and served in various capacities until his
death. He was a founding board member of the U.S. branch of Prince
Philip's WWF, and joined the international board in 1966, where he also
served until his death.
The Coolidge family, one of Boston's most prominent Brahmin families,
has been aiding British geopolitical efforts for more than a century,
and seems to specialize in the international drug trade.
In 1836, Harold Coolidge's great-grandfather, Joseph Coolidge, took over
the opium trade to China from the British Jardine Matheson Company. The
Chinese forbade Jardine Matheson ships from docking in Chinese ports, in
an effort to stop the British from flooding China with opium. Instead,
Coolidge clipper ships from Boston were hired to do the job, amassing a
$10 million fortune.
In 1899, Coolidge's great-uncle, Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, founded the
United Fruit Company. Coolidge family members have maintained a
controlling interest in the firm to the present day. EIR's best-seller,
Dope Inc., exposed United Fruit for importing drugs into the United
States in the early 1970s, from their fruit plantations in Ibero-America.
Coolidge's uncle, Archibald Cary Coolidge, an intimate of young Allen
Dulles, was a leading member of the American Institute of International
Affairs, the sister organization of the British Royal Institute for
International Affairs located in Chatham House, the home office for
British foreign intelligence. In 1921, Coolidge merged the AIAA with the
New York Council on Foreign Relations, becoming the first editor of
their new journal, Foreign Affairs.
AWF In The Field
AWLF's first order of business was to create the School for Wildlife
Management, near Moshi, Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and to begin sending
cadre back into the field. Through financial grants from the WWF and
Paul Mellon's Old Dominion Foundation in Virginia, the school opened in
January 1963. The first class of 30 Africans was carefully selected from
the game departments and national park services of Tanganyika, Kenya,
and Uganda. Roosevelt stationed his son Jonathan at the school to
oversee the AWLF's program. Combined with placing its graduates in
strategic game and national parks and government positions, the AWLF
launched a myriad of ``local control'' conservation projects.
With the assassinations of President Kennedy and key anti-British
African leaders in the mid-1960s, the immediate threat to London was
gone. To maintain their position in Africa, the British chose to bring
to prominence African heads of state who would be satisfied with British
and World Bank forms of ``economic development,'' i.e, appropriate
technology, eco-tourism, and financial looting. One such leader was
leftist Julius Nyerere, the President of Tanzania, who nurtured the
present decade's genocidal warlords, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Paul
Kagame of Rwanda, and Laurent Kabila of Congo/Zaire.
Nyerere whole-heartedly embraced British policies. In fact, in 1981, he
invited the AWF as special guests to attend the 60th birthday party of
Serengeti National Park, one of the oldest colonial game parks on the
continent. At the head table with Nyerere sat former SS man Prince
Bernhard of the Netherlands, the chairman of Prince Philip's 1001 Club (see
EIR, Oct. 28, 1994, p.|25).
Later that year, Prince Philip celebrated the 20th anniversary of the
WWF by becoming its president. His Highness's first official act was to
establish a new International Conservation Merit Award which he
immediately bestowed upon Dr. Felix Nyahozama, the principal of the
AWF's counterinsurgency school in Moshi. Also receiving the award was
Sandra Price, the AWLF's director of African operations.
Today, as in Rwanda, Museveni's government of Uganda is a major
supporter of AWF programs, and takes pride in promoting eco-tourism of
the gorillas. The government is also hosting a World Bank
environmentalism program for the Great Lakes. According to sources,
Museveni himself is a big promoter of these programs.
Since its inception, the AWF's school at Moshi has graduated over 2,000
cadre from 23 African countries. The AWF's local conservation programs,
which it pioneered, are too numerous to review here. According to a
spokesman for the AWF, the core philosophy of all their programs is ``institution
building'' or ``capacity building.'' The AWF's combined efforts have
successfully reached into the pores of everyday African life. British
colonial policy has once again been successful in pacifying whole